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中国心理治疗话语中“解述”现象的会话分析研究

来源: 责编:liaomz 作者:佚名 时间:2013-11-29 浏览:
 

中国心理治疗话语中“解述”现象的会话分析研究

胡文芝 廖美珍 

摘要:“解述”是“民俗学方法论”流派的社会学家提出的一种会话常规,是会话参与者常用的一种交际手段,在促进交际互动、避免交际障碍等方面发挥着重要作用。文章基于“解述”理论,以心理治疗话语这种比较典型的、以“目的”为导向的机构话语为研究对象,利用6场心理治疗门诊录音所撰写的6万多字的语料,对中国心理治疗话语中“解述”的语用类型、解述互动结构的构成要件及其应用等进行了研究。研究表明:解述是心理治疗会谈中一种常用的合作性干预手段;解述的互动结构特征一方面体现了治疗师和来访者之间的高度合作性,另一方面隐含了话语权力的不对称关系。治疗师要有效利用解述实施治疗性干预;来访者要充分利用解述积极参与交际互动,增强自身的权力以改变话语权力关系的不对称,从而获得更好的治疗效果。

关键词: 解述;心理治疗话语;会话分析;互动结构

 

AbstractAs an important conversational practice posed by ethnomethodologists, “formulation” serves to facilitate the interaction between participants and avoid conversational breakdowns. Based on the “formulation” theory and a corpus with more than 60,000 words transcribed from six psychotherapeutic sessions, this paper investigates the pragmatic types and the interaction structure of formulation in Chinese psychotherapeutic discourse. The findings are: formulation is a common device for cooperative intervention in psychotherapy; the interaction structures of formulation are, on the one hand, an indication of the close cooperation between the participants, on the other, an implication for the unequal distribution of discourse power. As psychotherapists, they can employ formulations to do effecitve therapeutic interventions; as clients, they can use more formulations to strengthen their internal power and improve the therapeutic effect.     

Key words:  Formulation; Psychotherapeutic discourse; Discourse analysis; Interaction structure